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Renal Failure

     Renal failure is the failure of the kidney's nephrons to maintain normal functions. With all the vital functions to perform, renal failure results in serious consequences.  Renal failure can occur suddenly (acute) or over a period of time (chronic).  Oftentimes acute renal failure is only temporary while chronic renal failure is irreversible.
Drug Prescribing in Renal Failure: Dosing Guidelines for Adults, Fifth EditionAcute & Chronic Renal Failure - Pathophysiology for Nurses Video SeriesKidney Failure: The Facts
Probable Causes
     • Damage of Kidney as in:
          a) nephritis
          b) renal artery obstruction
          c) nephronic syndrome
          d) kidney stones
          e) renal tubular disorders
     • Diabetes
     • Hypertension
     • Atherosclerosis

Probable Symptoms
     • Reduced or no renal output
     • Increased blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid
     • Uremic syndrome in severe stage which include:
          a) fatigue
          b) weakness
          c) decreased mental  alertness
          d) muscular twitches
          e) muscle cramps
          f) anorexia
          g) nausea
          h) vomiting
          i) stomatitis
          j) unpleasant taste in the mouth
          k) itchiness of the skin
          l) gastrointestinal ulcers
          m) bleeding
     • Common in later stages where virtually every system in the body is adversely affected.

As renal failure progresses to a severe stage, the buildup of toxic waste products in the blood (uremia) results in a complex of symptoms called the uremic syndrome.

Helpful Dietary Mangement
     • Eat a diet low in salt
    • A low protein diet may be given depending on the loss of kidney function during the acute renal failure. Protein is a major source of metabolic waste products.
     • Restrict amount of water intake to the amount of water loss.
     • Take calories from carbohydrates and fats. Include an abundance of fruits.

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