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Kidney Stone Formation

     Kidney Stone Formation can be really painful, about 60%  of all kidney stones contain calcium oxalate, 9% contain calcium phosphate, while about 11% contain a combination of both.  Less common stones are composed of uric acid, cystine, or magnesium ammonium phosphate.
     A stone that blocks the flow of urine or causes infection must be removed either surgically or by sound or shock waves to break up the stone into pieces that can be easily eliminated from the body.
     The person who has had a kidney stone may experience recurrence, but,reports suggest that with proper treatment,a recurrence may be prevented.  To date, much of the information is controversial, and research continues.

Probable Causes:
     • Bowel diseases (causing malabsorption)
     • Cystinuria
     • Glucocorticoid excess
     • Gout
     • Hyperparathyroidism
     • Immobilization
     • Osteoporosis
     • Paget's disease
     • Recurrent urinary track infections
     • Renal tubular acidosis
     • Vitamin D intoxication (overdose)
     • Some types of cancers

Note: 
Depending on their composition, stones may form from a variety of medical conditions that bring about either elevated blood levels of the stone-component substances (e.g., serum calcium), excessive urinary excretion of the component substances, or deficiencies of factors in the urine that normally control stone formation.

Probable Symptoms:
• Mild pain. This occurs when small pieces of the stone break off and travel down with the urine through the ureters.  The pain usually starts in the back, just below the ribs, and follows the path of the stone.  One the stone reaches the bladder, pain  normally subsides.
• Severe, stabbing pain.  This results if a large stone enters a ureter.

Helpful Dietary management
• Eat a diet low in sodium and low-to-moderate in protein plus a high fluid intake.
• Drink enough water - about 8½ glasses (eight-ounce glass) - spread within the day at regular intervals to maintain a urine volume of 2 liters per day. Maintaining a large urine volume ensures that mineral concentrations in the urine will be diluted, therefore reducing the risk of stone formation.

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